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Chip manufacturing process

Currently, IC card with a chip commonly used in more advanced CMOS, BiCMOS integrated circuit manufacturing processes, etc., has good electrical and robustness. Manufactured using CMOS and other processes in the IC card chip, for example, the main technical indicators: 
Minimum write / delete up to 10,000 times; minimum data retention time of 10 years; working voltage of 5V ± 10%; static noise margin of about 4000V and higher. 
This indicator basically meet the requirements of general application. Later chapters are based on different card technologies for a more detailed description of parameters. 
With the future VLSI technology and process development, technology trends will be the following: 
IC card chip operating voltage <2V; minimum data write / delete 1000,000 times; antistatic 15kV; EEPROM memory programming time <1ms; all this technological progress will the IC card application more reliable and practical. 
IC card and IC card packaging printing environment, IC card environment 
Safekeeping of the cardholder and the correct use of IC cards is to extend the service life and reliability of the most cost-effective means. Proper care is not free to bend, do not touch the contacts are free, not free to near the strong electrostatic environment to keep the card surface cleaning will help to improve the reliability of the use of IC cards, extended service life. 
IC card packaging printing 
IC card, IC card chip manufacturers sent after, IC card chip manufacturer shall contact pin and card key access together, and paste on the card surface with embedded . Button and then paste the quality of the inlay card will directly affect the reliability and service life. According to the provisions of relevant international standards, IC card manufacturing is complete, the need for a series of physical, electrical and environmental adaptability test, only after the passage delivered to users. Please refer to the relevant international standards after the section. 
IC card depends largely on the quality and reliability of IC packaging and testing to ensure the card. Basically, IC card technology and applications to determine the IC card production, manufacturing scale, standardization, specialization, automation, and only the use of modern large-scale industrial management model, mode of operation to ensure the IC card quality and reduce costs expand the application. Currently, IC card and the diversity of applications and initial small-scale     applications have a little contradictory. 
IC card reader equipment 
IC card reader device is interacting with the system in the middle of the cardholder interface hardware in the system it is the most frequently used. If the design or (and) the production quality problems, will seriously affect the overall system reliability, system function and even cause paralysis and a series of irreparable damage. 
IC card reader device in the design and production should primarily pay attention to the following five aspects: 
Consistent with the corresponding ISO / IEC international standard proper working order; stable operating voltage; IC card and IC card seat should have good contacts, contacts of the IC card surface friction should be as small as possible; manufacturing quality and stability when nature; on the application environment (temperature, humidity, vibration, electromagnetic interference, etc.) adaptability. 
The correct order in which the work is more important, according to the ISO / IEC 7816 standard provides that, in the contact IC card reader device and a good contact with the contact prior to, read and write device does not response to the electrical signal IC Kashi Jia, to avoid unexpected damage. 
IC card reader devices as system and user interface interaction, will face a variety of complex application environments, such as applications in the financial system in the ATM (automated teller machine) will be placed in open public places, in the face of the high and low temperature, humidity, electromagnetic interference environment; in power, automobile automatic ticketing system in the face of the vibration, electromagnetic interference environment. Therefore, in the design phase should be noted that IC card reader equipment adaptability to environment issues. 
Currently, IC card connector contacts and the contact between the IC card sliding, and there are basically two kinds of lower pressure. Which the IC card deck sliding contact wear large, and the IC card reader equipment design if unreasonable, easier to damage to the IC card; while under the pressure of a well-designed deck is almost no wear and tear type IC card contacts, the IC card has a better protection to ensure reliable use of IC cards for a long time. Of course, under the pressure-Bu acne as design complexity, parts and more precise processing, its price should be higher than many sliding deck. Unit or units of application development visual issue a reasonable choice of different types of applications of different types of deck. 
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